Common Knee Problems

Dr Hannes Van Der Westhuizen • Orthopedic Surgery • Garden Route

Knee pain - Symptoms and causes | Knee Pain Causes, Treatments, Tests | about knee problems, injuries, including diseases, and conditions which can cause pain | Chronic Knee Pain: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis | Knee Pain Treatment, Diagnosis & Related Symptoms

Most Common Knee Injuries

The knee is the largest joint of the body, and is also one of the most commonly injured joints. Bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons work together to form your knee joint and allow you to bend your leg. Because of all the moving parts on the knee and the sensitive nature of the joint, it’s very prone to multiple types of injuries.

Knee Pain Treatment

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Many athletes experience injuries to their knee ligaments. Of the four major ligaments found in the knee, the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) and the Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) are often injured in sports. The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) may also be injured

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury

By changing direction rapidly, slowing down when running, and landing from a jump may cause tears in the ACL. Athletes who participate in running, netball, and athletes who wear cleats, such as rugby players, are susceptible to ACL injuries.

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injury

Injuries to the MCL are usually caused by a direct blow to the outside of the knee. These types of injuries often occur in contact sports, such as rugby or soccer.

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injury
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Injury

The PCL is often injured when an athlete receives a blow to the front of the knee or makes a simple misstep on the playing field.

Torn cartilage

When people talk about torn knee cartilage, they are usually referring to a torn meniscus. The mensicus is a tough, rubbery cartilage that is attached to the knee’s ligaments. The meniscus acts like a shock absorber. In athletic activities, tears in the meniscus can occur when twisting, cutting, pivoting, decelerating, or being tackled. Direct contact is often involved.

Torn meniscus:- Requires a medical diagnosis
Partial Knee Replacement

Partial Knee Replacement

Multiple studies show that a majority of patients who are appropriate candidates for the procedure have good results with unicompartmental knee replacement.

The advantages of partial knee replacement over total knee replacement include:

Quicker recovery
Less pain after surgery
Less blood loss
Also, because the bone, cartilage, and ligaments in the healthy parts of the knee are kept, many patients report that a unicompartmental knee replacement feels more natural than a total knee replacement. A unicompartmental knee may also bend better.

Total Knee Replacement

A total knee replacement is a surgical procedure whereby the diseased knee joint is replaced with artificial material. The knee is a hinge joint that provides motion at the point where the thigh meets the lower leg. The thighbone (or femur) abuts the large bone of the lower leg (tibia) at the knee joint.

Total Knee Replacement
Partial and total Knee Replacement

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Knee Treatment Options:

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Knee pain can be divided into three major categories: Acute injury: such as a broken bone, torn ligament, or meniscal tear. Medical conditions: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, infections. Chronic use/overuse conditions: osteoarthritis, chondromalacia, IT band syndrome, patellar syndromes, tendinitis, and bursitis.
Often knee pain can be evaluated and treated by your primary care doctor. If the knee pain requires surgery or the cause of the pain needs further evaluation, an orthopedic surgeon will usually be consulted. With arthritis, gout, or inflammatory joint problems a rheumatologist may be consulted.

Orthopedics is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, correction, prevention, and treatment of patients with skeletal deformities – disorders of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, nerves and skin. These elements make up the musculoskeletal system.
Make an appointment with your doctor if your knee pain was caused by a particularly forceful impact or if it’s accompanied by: Significant swelling. Redness. Tenderness and warmth around the joint.
An orthopaedic doctor specializes in issues, diseases, and injuries pertaining to the musculoskeletal system. These doctors play a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal conditions.

When should I see an orthopedist?
Patients might need an orthopedic physician if they have:
Joint or musculoskeletal pain that began after an injury.
Gradually progressive hip or knee pain that is worse with weight bearing.
Joint pain that is severe and interfering with function.
Moderate or advanced arthritis of the knee or hip.

Orthopedic surgeons are specially trained in the surgical treatment of bone and joint problems that affect movement, like arthritis. Some surgeons specialize in disease of the hip, knee, or spine while others treat disease in several joints of the body, including hands and feet.
Common Orthopedic Conditions. Chronic orthopedic conditions, such as arthritis and bursitis, affect the musculoskeletal system – most commonly the bones or joints. … These conditions are different from orthopedic injuries, like a shoulder dislocation or broken bone, which are often due to sudden trauma.

What are the Most Common Types of Orthopedic Surgery?
Joint Replacement Procedures. These procedures replace an injured joint with a prosthetic and are among the most common orthopedic operations. …
• Revision Joint Surgery. …
• Debridement. …
• Spinal Fusion. …
• Bone Fusion. …
• Soft tissue repair. …
• Internal Fixation of Bones. …
• Osteotomy.